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  • Cristina FONTCUBERTA

How did lean healthcare organizations respond to the most critical stage of the epidemic? We asked three hospitals in Catalonia and Toledo to share their experience.

Words: Oriol Cuatrecasas and Cristina Fontcuberta Adalid, Instituto Lean Management – Barcelona


When things in the operating room get difficult, Dr Llorenç Mateo from the Consorci Sanitari del Alt Penedès-Garraf usually repeats to his colleagues a mantra: “Stable environment.” In an emergency, it’s all too easy to give in to stress and do the first thing that comes to our minds; what we should do, instead, is take a breath and identify the cause of the bleeding.

The Covid-19 crisis is remarkably similar to this scenario. The first few days, when chaos dominated, at the Instituto Lean Management we fell into the same trap. “Perhaps this is not the time to think. It’s the time to run, to focus on the D in PDCA, maybe even to jump to solutions,” we thought. Yet, when we spoke to the lean hospitals in our network – many of which have been our partners-in-learning for many years – we heard a different story. For example, Vicenç Ibañez (one of the practitioners featured in this article) reminded us that “having to run doesn’t mean we should stop thinking”. After all this is a marathon, not a sprint, and making level-headed decisions is the only way to complete it. Stable environment, remember?

Indeed, as we read about the experience of the three hospitals below, the level-headedness in decision making and the ability to anticipate the next development in the crisis are clearly a common element. While healthcare organizations were struggling to stay afloat and sending distress signals left, right and center, hoping for someone to come and rescue them, a number of lean hospitals took matters in their own hands and tapped into their knowledge and experience (with lean as one of the legs) to find new and creative ways to stay ahead of the emergency. (Check what Rosa Simón has to say about the supply of PPE, for example.) They have not stopped reviewing their standards, developing their people or learning; in fact, they have done it more than before.

Within days these organizations were able to implement radical changes – in some cases, ones that had been discussed for months and months – and to introduce practices that before wouldn’t have even been considered. Many of these will end up staying (telehealth, for example, like Ana Alvarez says below), proving the extraordinary ability of problem solvers to generate out-of-the-box thinking and innovation – even in the most stressful and overwhelming of scenarios.

Indeed, within hours everything changed. The dedicated pathway for trauma patients in the ER of the Garraf hospital, for instance, was transformed into an extension of the ICU. Its creation had cost the team a lot of sweat and tears over many months. For the first few days of the emergency, we saw all the work they had done with us disappear and we began to wonder whether or not we had actually helped them over the years. But then we realized that perhaps the physical changes are not that important. What really matters is the way of thinking that allows an organization to swiftly adapt to changing circumstances, and there is no doubt that over the past few weeks these hospitals have proved to have interiorized it. As we slowly overcome the Covid-19 threat and slowly go back to “business as usual”, this mindset will be more important than ever: if there is one thing that never goes away, that’s problems (the first one being the backlog of work accumulated during the crisis).

It’s beautiful to see that the lean seeds we have planted together with them are growing. We have given these people the tools to learn how to learn and now it’s their turn to teach us what they have learned in this crisis.

Ana Álvarez Soto, Director of Processes, Hospital de Bellvitge – Barcelona


“PDCA and the idea of getting to the root cause of problems is something we healthcare professionals do on a daily basis, aware that “putting a patch” on problems never works (let alone in an ever-changing situation like the Covid-19 pandemic). During this crisis, it was evident that Lean Thinking is now in our DNA and that it always informs decision making all the way up to the management team. One of the lean practices that helped the most was standardization: with Covid-19 patients at one point representing 90% of our workload, many of our professionals found themselves having to learn new procedures very quickly in order to confidently and properly care for people. From how to properly don PPE to how to deal with Covid-19 positive patients, we created standards as a way to transfer knowledge and expertise from those who knew more to those who knew less. We engaged in very rapid cycles of experimentation, trying a new standard one day and updating it the next to fix what didn’t work. We followed protocols and recommendations, of course, but – to try and save as many lives as we could – we didn’t shy away from finding our own solutions whenever necessary. Interestingly, changes we had struggled to implement for several months (for example, in our Emergency department) were made in just a couple of days when Covid-19 appeared.

Now that things are a bit calmer, we have started to gather our lessons learned and it’s clear that some of the changes will end up staying (we cannot expect to just go back to normal after this). For example, I suspect we will start using video conferencing tools more often than we did in the past, to communicate both with colleagues in other hospitals and with patients’ families. The relationship with patients and relatives has changed: Covid-19 has made us more empathic and more proactive in informing relatives of a patient’s condition, for instance. I also think that follow-up consultations will increasingly be done on the phone, whenever possible – now that we have been forced to do them in this way, we have started to see there is value in them. Finally, some of the elements of the new daily huddle we introduced in each area to discuss problems and the work for the day are likely here to stay. As of April 6th, we are running the Fira Salut temporary hospital (there are 340 beds for now, with the potential of 1,000) and there too we are trying to apply lean. We are asking people working there to give us input on how the work should be organized and trying to be flexible with our resources. Rather than keeping them parked there (which is wasteful), we are studying different possible scenarios and readying ourselves to quickly increase their utilization in a matter of days, should the need arise.”

Rosa Maria Simón, Director of Quality, Corsorci Sanitari Alt Penedès-Garraf


“We had all read the news about the town of Igualada, here in Catalonia, where in mid-February the hospital had become an epicenter of the outbreak of Covid-19. Considering our proximity to Igualada, we started working on containment plans in late February. Having learned from their experience, our main objective was to protect our patients and our staff. To do so, we organized our two hospitals to create in each of them two completely separated areas – one for Covid-19 patients and one for patients who are not infected. CSAPG offers acute, general and geriatric care. In just three days, we were able to transform the whole hospital, using tape and visual management to segregate flows and keep Covid-19 patients isolated from the rest at all times. So, we isolated the nursing home, moved all non-Covid patients in good condition to a nearby hotel and used the space we saved for people in need of acute care (but not positive to Covid-19). The rest of the hospital was entirely dedicated to coronavirus patients. Part of our ER was turned into an extension of our ICU (we went from seven to twenty beds), while pediatric, trauma and surgery were moved to an outpatient area.

We relied extensively on the ILUO matrix to identify those professionals who had the capabilities to work in the ICU and emergency care, to ensure our most critical patients receive the best possible care.

The availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) has been a huge problem in many countries and, unfortunately, we were no exception. We quickly realized our stock wasn’t going to be enough and, as soon as it became clear that we couldn’t rely on external suppliers, we had to get creative. Working with a network of volunteers, we sourced materials and set up a little textile factory to manufacture PPE ourselves. This helped us a lot in the most acute phase of the emergency. We also put a lot of emphasis on reminding our staff of the correct use of PPE in different scenarios (visiting a Covid-19 patients, intubating, and so on). We had to break their routine of doing things almost automatically and ensure they’d pay extra attention to each step. To achieve this, we found it very useful to observe professional shift by shift, ward by ward, as they donned PPE and correct them whenever we noticed something wrong. Finally, we carried out small kaizens to maximize the use of equipment: for example, we stopped entering a patient’s room just to take vital signs, taking the opportunity instead to complete other tasks too.

Lean gave us a lot of flexibility and there is no doubt we would have been much slower in our response without it. I was really impressed with the discipline of our people, for whom following standards and procedures (and passing them on to their colleagues) is clearly a natural thing to do after so many years on a lean journey.”

Vicenç Martinez Ibañez, CEO, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos – Toledo


“Our hospital, which opened in 1974, is a renowned center for the care and rehabilitation of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients. The fact that the organization has little to no competition means that to introduce Lean Thinking here we can’t rely on the sense of urgency provided by a “burning platform”. But then Covid-19 arrived (just one month after I joined as CEO). For the past few weeks, it has of course monopolized our attention. We have had seven cases internally, but we have also welcomed patients from other hospitals that were struggling with space. We currently have with us 90 cases of coronavirus from nearby Hospital General, here in Toledo – some of them in the ICU. We have assigned the older part of our building to them, entirely separating their flow from ours to minimize the risk of infection (both their professionals and ambulances have their own entrance).

Another measure we took early on was the suspension of all visits – some of our patients were actually infected by asymptomatic relatives who came to see them. Our physicians call family members, instead, always at the same time of the day (it’s easier to manage than waiting for people to call them).

Additionally, all those patients whose rehabilitation could be interrupted until the emergency is over were discharged, which meant we cut the number of occupied beds in half (out of a total of 200). We grouped the 100 patients remaining in the modern section of the hospital – so that the older one could be turned into a Covid-only area. Throughout the crisis, we have also been running a special meeting every day to assess the situation and better coordinate among ourselves.

Things are calmer now, but we still have an opportunity to leverage the focus on problem solving we are seeing during this crisis to start discussions about the future of our organization. It’s a great moment to get everyone together to talk about where we want to go as a hospital. The first problem we’ll be focusing on is the fact that all rehabilitation and physiotherapy activities take place in the morning, leaving the afternoons almost completely empty: there is a huge opportunity for a better distribution of the work. We also intend to introduce some Design Thinking in our improvement work, to make sure we are really taking patient feedback and needs into account as we redesign our processes.

In my experience, in healthcare organizations, the most powerful lever to achieve change is people’s passion for their work – in our hospital, there is plenty of it, as the great work everyone’s done has showed us over the past month.”

THE AUTHORS Oriol Cuatrecasas is the President of Instituto Lean Management in Barcelona. Cristina Fontcuberta Adalid is a Lean Coach at Instituto Lean Management in Barcelona.

  • Cristina FONTCUBERTA

A Lean Global Network team of lean practitioners and coaches shares a set of lean healthcare tips hospitals can use today to support their battle against Covid-19. 


The Covid-19 pandemic is pushing healthcare systems around the world to the limit and, despite the heroic effort of healthcare professionals, hard work is often not enough. The images coming from the most heavily affected areas tell us of Emergency Departments filled to the brim, hospitals struggling to treat everyone due to the very high number of people that the virus sends to the ICU, and exhausted staff who are often forced to work without adequate protective gear.

As the Global Lean Healthcare Initiative, we are supporting healthcare organizations around the world as they apply lean thinking and practice in coping with this crisis. Sharing our thinking across four continents, we have come up with seven key lean practices – each with a set of actionable tips – that can really help a healthcare team handle this emergency more effectively.

  1. Design the patient flow

  2. Visual Management

  3. Standard work to ensure safety, quality and efficiency

  4. Engage in short, structured communication cycles

  5. Build skills fast with a people-development plan

  6. Review priorities to ensure capacity

  7. Level capacity and protect staff



1. Design the patient flow 

  • Understand demand and pace for each patient flow.

  • Visually map your newly-designed flows and processes to better understand and share.

  • Physically segregate flows and ensure that critical patients have access to dedicated resources, so that they don’t cross paths with other patients. Separate those with respiratory symptoms from those without. Minimizing the number of flow groups reduces complexity as we move patients through the system.

  • Develop a plan for every flow: for example, Covid patients with mild symptoms and Covid patients with severe symptoms.

  • Encourage “pull”, by having downstream care providers actively look for their next patients in order to move them to the right place as fast as possible. Pulling patients from ICU into an available bed will allow the next patient to flow in. If possible, maintain some downstream capacity for outflow.

  • Assign highly skilled professionals to the intersections of the flow and to areas making key decisions (like Triage).


This article contains a lot of examples and visuals, which will require some scrolling on your part.


EXAMPLE 1 – ARGENTINA In a hospital in Cordoba, to separate the flow of Coronavirus patients from that of regular patients, we have converted the cardiac rehabilitation center into a dedicated Covid-19 space. In this area (located in a separate building), we have mapped the flow of patients, physicians, nurses, technicians, materials and information and made several improvements, in order to reduce exposure and reduce the number of PPE per patient seen. We know that when the number of infections ramps up and severe or critical cases arrive, we will have to bring Covid-19 patients into the hospital. That’s when we will separate and isolate entire areas in three different stages to avoid any risk of further spreading the infection.


EXAMPLE 2 – SPAIN This simple graphic maps the process that is followed for Covid-19 patients in a hospital in Catalunya.



EXAMPLE 3 – USA A community health center in Massachusetts has reorganized its work streams across different locations to reduce infection risk for staff and patients.




2. Visual management

  • Share clear and visual work instructions for the critical steps in the process, so that everyone knows what to do and how.

  • Place visuals at each bed to minimize the time to obtain the necessary information. The goal is to create visuals that provide needed information in seconds, at-a-glance.

  • Use different color codes for areas, pathways, classifications to make clear the current standards, like the purpose of an area, can change quickly and pathways can be extended or reduced overnight. This way, everybody is kept up to speed with the evolving situation.

  • Train professionals quickly using simple visuals.

  • Incorporate visual management in your communication.


EXAMPLE 1 – AUSTRALIA The team in the Australian hospital has filled its “command centre” and surrounding corridors with whiteboards to increase transparency of planning. Now one can immediately see what is going on and what the team is up to, which helped with connection and dependencies. They combine this with regular huddles where they review key metrics, progress against visual master Gantt chart, critical work-in-progress and they address barriers. They visualize the work for today and allocate help. The staff’s FAQs are visualized, too, along with a status of supplies. All patient flows for COVID-19 are mapped and visual. They make changes in real time on the maps as they continue to develop their thinking on how these patients should be flowed and cared for. Other teams regularly go to see what they are working on, to test out thinking and contribute. Connecting silos of front-line and leadership planning has been made both more effective and efficient by making things visible.


EXAMPLE 2 – ARGENTINA In an Argentinian hospital, visual, easy-to-understand instructions on how to don PPE during Covid-19 testing are posted on the walls but also inside the testing kits (on the inside of the lid) – to ensure biochemists don’t miss any steps.



EXAMPLE 3 – SPAIN Checklist on each bed, to ensure professionals have all the information they need available at the place of work.



3. Standard work to ensure safety, quality and efficiency

  • Develop standardized work and train teams in using those standards, to guarantee safety and agility in your operations.

  • Observe the work and assess adherence to standards.

  • Organize people (both management teams and care teams) in small integrated teams – doctor, nurse, assistant doctor, etc – instead of big groups of professionals, to share vital information more quickly.

  • Limit the movement of staff by organizing your space into dedicated areas for the different teams.

  • Enable leaders to identify priorities and necessary actions using Leader Standard Work. In a crisis, it is a good idea to create a central hub (incident command center) for information flow with visual management of key work streams (e.g. resource management of PPE; staff status – exposed and quarantined, tested positive, replacement requests; etc). Leaders focus the teams with structured and frequent huddles.


EXAMPLE 1 – AUSTRALIA Executive leaders in the Australian hospital attend each site huddle daily to show respect and communicate directly with staff.


EXAMPLE 2 – SPAIN These colored tags, in use in a Barcelona hospital, indicate different areas healthcare professionals are deployed in. When a doctor/nurse tests positive to Covid-19 and has to go home for self-isolation, they place their tag into this plastic folder. This tells the team immediately who needs to be replaced. (As of March 30, over 12,000 healthcare workers have been infected with the Coronavirus in Spain.)


EXAMPLE 3 – USA A healthcare organization in Massachusetts has organized their senior leaders and managers into two parallel teams that are dedicated to two separate areas of the organization to reduce the possibility of cross infection throughout the larger management team and to preserve human capacity. This model was soon replicated with segmented care teams.


EXAMPLE 4 – ARGENTINA The Cordoba hospital’s Crisis Committee developed a set of Covid-19 guidelines that can be accessed at any time via an URL code posted throughout the organization or a link the healthcare workers have installed on the cell phones. These guidelines include definitions, protocols, flow charts, standard processes, etc. Most importantly, they represent a “dynamic” document that is constantly updated as new evidence/information becomes available and as the team is called to face up to new challenges (particularly important in this situation, because this a new disease that we need to learn about fast).


EXAMPLE 5 – BRAZIL In a hospital near Sao Paulo, all the material necessary to intubate Covid-19 patients is organized in a ready-to-use standard kit.


4. Engage in short, structured communication cycles

  • Implement a daily management system to structure periodical meetings, short in duration, at all management levels as a way to prepare people for the specific situation of a shift or day. Hold these huddles in each work stream. The huddles may be virtual if teams are segregated.

  • Create visual boards to act proactively and preventively by visually anticipating important decisions in the face of difficulties, which will change every day.

  • Encourage people to communicate problems, difficulties and opportunities for improvement at all times.

  • Enable better communication by always working in teams.


EXAMPLE 1 – AUSTRALIA The Daily Management System in use in this hospital has been critical to ensure that front-line teams engage daily in conversations about their concerns. We have increased the focus on front-line huddles to create more structure and collect concerns, feedback and critical information every day. The ward huddle is now split into two: safety huddles at the start of the shift (duration of 5 minutes) and top-tier leaders’ huddles to close the loop of information and respond to team members’ concerns. This creates a time for the teams to reset and connect during these stressful work days. Huddles have proven such an important part of communication and supporting each other. The team had to redesign huddles to keep staff safe and adhere to the social distancing requirements using a  combination of technology and visual marks on the floor to help us maintain the social aspects of the huddle process.


EXAMPLE 2 – SPAIN The panel in use at the “command center” in a Catalan hospital, with different colors referring to different areas tackling the Covid-19 emergency. The board is updated daily/weekly as the situation evolves.


EXAMPLE 3 – SPAIN  These symbols are used to visually identify Covid-19 positive patients and those awaiting test results. The star sign indicates the patient’s family has been informed.


5. Build skills fast with a people-development plan

  • Plan for how you onboard and train new team members. As doctors who left for non-hospital work or retired doctors come back into hospital service, together with other specialty physicians or new medical school graduates, you will need to provide orientation and knowledge to enable them to be productive as quickly as possible.

  • Leverage visual standards to train quickly and run on-the-spot assessments to evaluate attainment of the standard.

  • Bring the right knowledge to professionals – no more, no less. Not everyone needs to know everything at once, to avoid information overload and make it clear what people should focus on. At the same time, transparency is key and everyone should be giving the lowdown on what’s happening in the organization.

  • Take the time to capture lessons learned each day in a structured way (i.e. through the huddles). It can save you a huge amount of time tomorrow as you further improve and learn. Learning is one of the most precious things that happens in burning platform situations.

  • Recognize the importance of every small improvement and understand that quick action accompanied by quick course correction (as you learn what works best, through rapid-cycle PDCA) is the way to achieve success.


EXAMPLE 1 – ARGENTINA Chinese research on the virus indicated fever and cough as the main symptoms of the infection, but there have been several covid-19 cases in the USA and Argentina that showed different symptoms (such as headache, fatigue, diarrhea and less cough). The virus might express itself in different ways in different places, which is why it’s important to capture data. In a hospital in Argentina, for each suspected Covid-19 patient (we have a 24-hour delay to the PCR results), the team is using tablets to record symptoms in each examination room and then uploads them on a simple document on Google Drive. This information (what symptoms, how long they took to appear, etc) is updated in real time and we expect it to be incredibly useful for us to learn quickly.


EXAMPLE 2 – SPAIN Visuals to train the different teams on each of the stages and main operations for ventilation, and when to do it.


6. Review priorities to ensure capacity

  • Cancel and reschedule all non-urgent appointment and elective procedures. If appropriate, some of these patients can be seen using telehealth.

  • Keep most patients away from the ERs and do triage and testing outside/elsewhere.

  • Redirect teams from other areas of the hospital to bring support to the most critical flows.

  • Place younger professionals on the front-line interaction with patients and older and at risk ones in the back office and assigned to telehealth support of patients.

  • Estimate the expected number of non-Covid emergencies using historical data.


EXAMPLE 1 – USA In Massachusetts, a 160-bed community hospital has been converted into a dedicated Covid-19 hospital – the first one in the USA to segment the patient population further and prevent further spread in the patient and staff community within a hospital. This also keeps the city’s EDs and hospitals operational with needed capacity for other acutely sick patients with lower risk of infection. They do triage and testing in a mobile tent outside in their parking lot. Other countries, like South Korea and the UK, have created drive-through testing centers.


EXAMPLE 2 – USA A hospital in Massachusetts has partnered with an outpatient community health center to care for their non-Covid patients to keep the patient flows clear and distinct.


EXAMPLE 3 – ARGENTINA A hospital in Cordoba – providing care mainly to cardiovascular patients (more than half of the total number), a category at high risk complications from a Covid-19 infection – has analyzed its 2019 monthly/seasonal demand in the ER to understand what they can expect in terms of emergencies (strokes, infarctions, etc) over the coming weeks. This is helping them to prepare for the Covid-19 emergency.


7. Level capacity and protect staff

  • Give people the time to recover. This is important to avoid staff burnout and the mistakes that often result from it. Limit working hours, creating a smarter shifts plan so that the teams are able to “run the marathon”.

  • Assign tasks by balancing staff (which should include age, empathy, energy, mental strength, knowledge…) and try to cross-train staff in more than one area of the organization as these multi-skilled workers can be moved where they are needed for flexibility.

  • Create a plan for managing different levels of capacity (for example, as you add new ICU beds to your Covid-19 flow). As your demand increases, gradually devise new plans on how machines/equipment/spaces are going to be used/moved/assigned each time. Allocating all resources from the beginning could result in not using them effectively; it could also make each potential mistake much more damaging. Conversely, a plan with several iterations allows you to integrate your lessons learned and improve your response.

  • Calculate how much material you need for each flow, process, scenario.

  • Don’t be afraid to start from scratch set up the space using workplace organization techniques like 5S and 3P and create standards for each flow/process/scenario.

  • Ensure material is always available to professionals when they need it. It is key to reduce searching for things as, in hospitals, hours are typically spent walking and searching for materials. Always have someone responsible for replenishment and make sure you are making the most of the material you have.


EXAMPLE 1 – ARGENTINA For the first time since 1977, physicians in the Cordoba hospital are working no longer than 12 hours and nurses no longer than 8 hours. As of March 28th, front-line staff – younger than 60 years old – has been divided into three groups: the first two groups work for five days (one from 8 AM to 8 PM, and the second from 8 PM to 8 AM); after that, the night shift goes home and stays in quarantine for five days (in case any Covid-19 symptoms appear) and the third group comes in. The day group will move to the night group, and so on. Additionally, we have a plan for managing different levels of Covid-19 patient demand and have decided how the different areas (i.e. ICU) will be converted for Covid-19 care in three stages.


EXAMPLE 2 – USA A ICU nurse in Boston noted how many PPEs she and her fellow nurses had to use as they entered and exited ICU rooms to adjust or respond to IV pumps. She proposed, got approved and tested the process of moving all the IV pumps outside the rooms, at the door, to preserve PPE use and make it faster for nurses to do this part of their work. Obviously, the nurse would still don PPE and check on their patients and IV site, but this way they can reduce the number of times they need to enter/exit rooms (like when pumps beep).


EXAMPLE 3 – BRAZIL A hospital in our network has come up with a three-tiered plan to prepare for the different stages of the Covid-19 crisis.


EXAMPLE 4 – ARGENTINA After their first suspected Covid-19 case – hospitalized on March 23rd – turned out to be negative, the hospital in Cordoba realized a large number of PPE had been used (unnecessarily) to isolate the patient from caregivers and decided to review its process to minimize staff exposure and PPE utilization. They mapped all the touch points for that first patient over the 24 hours he awaited results and merged or eliminated some – going from 23 touch points per patient every 24 hours to 7-9 touch points with two patients in inpatient rooms. For their first confirmed Covid-19 case, hospitalized on March 29th, the team had 10 touch points with a 57% reduction in PPE usage over 24 hours, for three consecutive days. For ICU patients, the original design started a 60 touch points per patient every 24 hours and is now the expected to be around 20 touch points every 24hs for seven Covid-19 ICU patients.This was achieved by deploying highly skilled professionals to the relevant areas and by implementing a Kanban replenishment system.



LEAN VS. COVID-19

The transformations we facilitate typically take years to complete, but they are accomplished by taking immediate action, day after day, as the circumstances around us change. Indeed, Lean Thinking can  lead to great results very quickly – which is exactly what healthcare organizations around the world need right now.

We hope this article will reach healthcare professionals around the globe, especially those who have never even heard about Lean Thinking, as they prepare for an onslaught of Covid-19 cases. To lean neophytes, we say: some of these suggestions might be very different from your regular way of working, but we ask you to give them a try. They might even take a little bit of time to implement (we know how precious a resource time is right now), but we urge you to see this as an investment in your ability to face the upcoming challenges posed by Covid-19. We have decades of combined experience transforming healthcare organizations and believe that these measures can make a big contribution in the fight against this threat.


Our collective goal is currently to “flatten the curve” – slowing down the spread of Covid-19 so that we can level the caseload for hospitals, allow them to save more lives and have the time to get them the extra supplies and equipment they need. In lean terms, this is clearly a global heijunka problem with far-reaching consequences on our healthcare systems. The PPE debacle unfolding in many of our countries suggests this crisis will also force us to rethink the way we produce and handle the logistics of key equipment. We believe that Lean Thinking has a lot to contribute to this debate, as the world tackles this emergency and then starts to reimagine life after the pandemic.



AUTHORS: Cristina Adalid Fontcuberta, Instituto Lean Management, Barcelona; Flávio Battaglia, Lean Institute Brasil; Denise Bennett, Lean Enterprise Australia; Oriol Cuatrecasas, Instituto Lean Management, Barcelona; Alice Lee, Lean Enterprise Institute, Boston; Dr Carlos Frederico Pinto, Instituto de Oncologia do Vale, Brazil; Dr Javier Sala Mercado, Instituto Modelo de Cardiología Privado, Cordoba, Argentina.



ARTICLE PUBLISHED AT PLANET LEAN WEBSITE.

  • Cristina FONTCUBERTA

Si estás interesado en el mundo del Lean, te recomendamos que accedas a Planet Lean, un universo lleno de artículos sobre cómo implementar la metodología en distintos sectores, así como ejemplos reales de la mano de grandes expertos.


Accede a través del siguiente link: https://planet-lean.com


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